Current Issue: Volume 23 Issue 4

Predictors of COVID-19 Vaccination Among EMS Personnel

Author Affiliation Michael W. Hubble, PhD, MBA, NRP Wake Technical Community College, Department of Emergency Medical Science, Raleigh, North Carolina Ginny K. Renkiewicz, PhD, MHS, Paramedic Methodist University, Department of Health Care Administration, Fayetteville, North Carolina Sandy Hunter, PhD, NRP Wake Technical Community College, Department of Emergency Medical Science, Raleigh, North Carolina Randy D. Kearns, […]

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Two-point Compression Ultrasound Technique Risks Missing Isolated Femoral Vein DVTs

Matthew Tabbut, MD

Deep vein thrombosis (DVT) is a common vascular problem seen in the emergency department (ED) and is commonly identified using ultrasound performed by a vascular lab, the radiology department, or at the point of care. Previous studies have assessed the utility of a two-point vs sequential technique to identify the presence of a thrombus. One particular study reported a concerning rate of isolated femoral vein thrombi that would be missed by a two-point technique.

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A Qualitative Study of “What Matters” to Older Adults in the Emergency Department

Cameron J. Gettel, MD, MHS

The “4Ms” model – What Matters, Medication, Mentation, and Mobility – is increasingly gaining attention in age-friendly health systems, yet a feasible approach to identifying what matters to older adults in the emergency department (ED) is lacking. Adapting the “What Matters” questions to the ED setting, we sought to describe the concerns and desired outcomes of both older adult patients seeking ED care and their treating clinicians.

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Predictors of COVID-19 Vaccination Among EMS Personnel

Michael W. Hubble, PhD, MBA, NRP

Unvaccinated emergency medical services (EMS) personnel are at increased risk of contracting coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and potentially transmitting the virus to their families, coworkers, and patients. Effective vaccines for the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 virus exist; however, vaccination rates among EMS professionals remain largely unknown. Consequently, we sought to document vaccination rates of EMS professionals and identify predictors of vaccination uptake.

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Revisits After Emergency Department Discharge for Conditions with High Disposition-Decision Variability at Hospitals with High and Low Discharge Rates

Avi Baehr, MD

The first proposed emergency care alternative payment model seeks to reduce avoidable admissions from the emergency department (ED), but this initiative may increase risk of adverse events after discharge. Our study objective was to describe variation in ED discharge rates and determine whether higher discharge rates were associated with more ED revisits.

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An Intensive Approach to Improving Diversity, Equity, and Inclusion in an Academic Emergency Department

Pamela Young, PA-C

A healthcare workforce that demonstrates cultural competence and humility while reflecting the diversity of the surrounding community has the potential to significantly benefit the patient population it serves. In this context and given numerous societal influences and the events of 2020, the leadership of the Department of Emergency Medicine at Albany Medical Center recognized the need to promote diversity, equity, and inclusion (DEI) in multiple areas. These included premedical education, medical education, postgraduate medical education, faculty development, staff satisfaction, and patient care. The department formed a DEI taskforce that developed an ongoing, multipronged, interdisciplinary approach to address these important aspects of our work and clinical environment with the goals of improving staff wellbeing, reducing burnout, and promoting the health of our community. Our experience is shared here to illustrate how a small, dedicated team can implement a variety of DEI initiatives quickly and with relatively little cost at a large academic medical center.

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The Use of Non-physician Prescribed Medications in Patients Presenting to Two Emergency Departments in a Low/Middle-income Country

Donna Venezia, MD

With few trained healthcare practitioners and limited personal finances, many patients in low/middle income countries purchase prescription medications from non-physician prescribers (NPP). This study documents various aspects of this practice, including patterns of prescribing, and the patient’s understanding of medication risks.

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The Use of a Self-triage Tool to Predict COVID-19 Cases and Hospitalizations in the State of Georgia

Yi-Ting Hana Lee, MPH

The coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has created significant burden on healthcare systems throughout the world. Syndromic surveillance, which collects real-time data based on a range of symptoms rather than laboratory diagnoses, can help provide timely information in emergency response. We examined the effectiveness of a web-based COVID-19 symptom checking tool (C19Check) in the state of Georgia (GA) in predicting COVID-19 cases and hospitalizations.

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Virtual Town Hall Meetings to Convey Emergency Medicine Residency Program Information to Students

Geoffrey Comp, DO

Applying to emergency medicine (EM) residency programs as a medical student is challenging and complicated in a normal year, but the 2020/2021 application cycle was further complicated by the COVID-19 pandemic. Due to the decrease of in-person opportunities for students to connect with residency programs, virtual “town-hall” meetings were developed. In this study our primary objective was to determine whether attendance at a virtual residency program information session improved the perceived knowledge of curriculum information and program exposure to medical students applying to an EM residency.

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Physician Pipeline and Pathway Programs: An Evidence-based Guide to Best Practices for Diversity, Equity, and Inclusion from the Council of Residency Directors in Emergency Medicine

Melissa Parsons, MD

Improving the diversity and representation in the medical workforce requires intentional and deliberate efforts to improve the pipeline and pathway for underrepresented in medicine (UIM) applicants. Diversity enhances educational experiences and improves patient care and outcomes. Through a critical review of the literature, in this article we offer evidence-based guidelines for physician pipeline and pathway programs (PP). Recommendations are provided regarding considerations on the types of programs and surrounding implementation to ensure a sound infrastructure and framework. We believe this guide will be valuable for all leaders and faculty members seeking to grow the UIM applicant pool in our efforts to advance diversity, equity, and inclusion within medicine.

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Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome in Children

Muhammad Waseem, MD, MS

Multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) is an uncommon but emerging syndrome related to SARS-CoV-2 infection. While the presentation of MIS-C is generally delayed after exposure to the virus that causes coronavirus 2019, both MIS-C and Kawasaki disease (KD) share similar clinical features. Multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children poses a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge given the lack of definitive diagnostic tests and a paucity of evidence regarding treatment modalities. We review the clinical presentation, diagnostic evaluations, and management of MIS-C and compare its clinical features to those of KD.

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Pediatric Point-of-Care Lung Ultrasonography: A Narrative Review

Munaza Batool Rizvi, MD

Point-of-care lung ultrasonography is an evidence-based application that may play a vital role in the care of critically ill pediatric patients. Lung ultrasonography has the advantage of being available at the patient’s bedside with results superior to chest radiography and comparable to chest computed tomography for most lung pathologies. It has a steep learning curve. It can be readily performed in both advanced healthcare systems and resource-scarce settings. The purpose of this review is to discuss the basic principles of lung ultrasonography and its applications in the evaluation and treatment of critically ill pediatric patients.

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Caregiver Perceptions Regarding Alternative Emergency Medical Services Dispositions for Children: A Cross-Sectional Survey Analysis

Caleb E. Ward, MB BChir, MPH

Emergency medical services (EMS) systems have developed alternative disposition processes for patients (including leaving the patient at the scene, using taxis, and transporting to clinics) vs taking patients directly to an emergency department (ED). Studies show that patients favorably support these alternative options but have not included the perspectives of caregivers of children. Our objective was to describe caregivers’ views about these alternative disposition processes and analyze whether caregiver support is associated with sociodemographic factors.

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Poison Ivy Dermatitis Treatment Patterns and Utilization: A Retrospective Claims-based Analysis

Melissa Butt, DrPH

Poison ivy (toxicodendron) dermatitis (TD) resulting from contact with poison ivy, oak, or sumac is a common form of allergic contact dermatitis that impacts millions of people in the United State every year and results in an estimated 43,000 emergency department (ED) visits annually. Our objective in this study was to evaluate whether healthcare utilization outcomes are impacted by prescription practices of systemic corticosteroids.

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Clue Cells on Vaginal Wet Preparation Are Not Associated with Urinary Tract Infections or Positive Urine Cultures

Johnathan Michael Sheele, MD, MHS, MPH

Clue cells result from aberrant vaginal microflora and are associated with an increased vaginal pH, which can allow colonization of uropathogens in the vaginal introitus, increasing the risk for urinary tract infections (UTI). We sought to determine whether clue cells on vaginal wet preparation in the emergency department (ED) are associated with emergency physician diagnoses of UTIs and positive urine cultures.

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Improving Uptake of Emergency Department-initiated Buprenorphine: Barriers and Solutions

Timothy D. Kelly, MD, MPH

Emergency departments (ED) are increasingly providing buprenorphine to persons with opioid use disorder. Buprenorphine programs in the ED have strong support from public health leaders and emergency medicine specialty societies and have proven to be clinically effective, cost effective, and feasible. Even so, few ED buprenorphine programs currently exist. Given this imbalance between evidence-based practice and current practice, proven behavior change approaches can be used to guide local efforts to expand ED buprenorphine capacity. In this paper, we use the theory of planned behavior to identify and address the 1) clinician factors, 2) institutional factors, and 3) external factors surrounding ED buprenorphine implementation. By doing so, we seek to provide actionable and pragmatic recommendations to increase ED buprenorphine availability across different practice settings.

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Implementing a Novel Statewide Network to Support Emergency Department-initiated Buprenorphine Treatment

Brian M. Clemency, DO, MBA

Medications for opioid use disorder (MOUD), including buprenorphine, represent an evidence-based treatment that supports long-term recovery and reduces risk of overdose death. Patients in crisis from opioid use disorder (OUD) often seek care from emergency departments (ED). The New York Medication for Addiction Treatment and Electronic Referrals (MATTERS) network is designed to support ED-initiated buprenorphine and urgent referrals to long-term care for patients suffering from OUD.

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United States Emergency Department Screening for Drug Use Among Assault-Injured Individuals: A Systematic Review

Edouard Coupet, MD, MS

The clinical model of screening, providing a brief psychosocial and/or pharmacological intervention, and directly referring patients to treatment (SBIRT) is a compelling model to address drug use among assault-injured individuals in the busy emergency department (ED) setting. Our objective in this study was to examine the current literature and determine ED-based strategies that have been reported that screen, directly refer to drug mis-use/addiction specialized treatment services, or initiate addiction treatment among individuals injured by non-partner assault in the United States.

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Contact Information

WestJEM/ Department of Emergency Medicine
UC Irvine Health

3800 W Chapman Ave Ste 3200
Orange, CA 92868, USA
Phone: 1-714-456-6389


ISSN: 1936-900X
e-ISSN: 1936-9018

ISSN: 2474-252X

Our Philosophy

Emergency Medicine is a specialty which closely reflects societal challenges and consequences of public policy decisions. The emergency department specifically deals with social injustice, health and economic disparities, violence, substance abuse, and disaster preparedness and response. This journal focuses on how emergency care affects the health of the community and population, and conversely, how these societal challenges affect the composition of the patient population who seek care in the emergency department. The development of better systems to provide emergency care, including technology solutions, is critical to enhancing population health.